The Icelandic sagas contain many realistic descriptions of Viking Age combat. The earliest extant dedicated martial arts manual is the MS I. The manuscript consists of 64 images with Latin commentary, interspersed with technical vocabulary in German. While there are earlier manuals of wrestling techniques, I. Wrestling throughout the Middle Ages was practiced by all social strata. Jousting and the tournament were popular martial arts practiced by nobility throughout the High and Late Middle Ages.

Strengthening Protection of Patient Medical Data

This dramatic event, counted as Seleucus’ first regal year, was continued as the Seleucid Era, the first continuous count of time in world chronology, soon to inspire the similar Arsacid Era of Parthia. There is also the residual uncertainty about Hellenistic dating. Bickerman, for instance, positively asserted that Seleucus reconquered Babylon “in August of ” [Chronology of the Ancient World, Cornell University Press, , , , p.

Seleucus] was given a thousand men by Ptolemy and set out from Palestine to Babylonia” [Dividing the Spoils, Oxford, , p. While we may have more confidence in up-to-date scholarship, sometimes older analyses are later vindicated. As recounted above , Seleucus had to fend off two major efforts against him to recover Babylon for Antigonus Monophthalmos.

Definition of antiquity from the Collins English Dictionary Verbal nouns The verbal noun is the -ing form, i.e. the present participle of the verb, used as a noun.

He is the very definition of grace and speed, well deserving of the name bestowed on him by his Arab breeders — The Noble. The Saluki is bred for speed, strength, and endurance, qualities that are evident in his long, narrow head and sleek yet muscular body. Beautiful but reserved, the Saluki is affectionate without being overly demonstrative. He’s happy to prove his loyalty through quiet companionship. Not everyone is offered the gift of a Saluki’s devoted friendship, but those happy few who receive it are appreciative of the honor.

Salukis are widely admired for their exotic appearance, but not everyone is well suited to live with this spirited and independent hunter. Any movement, be it a squirrel, cat, or radio-controlled car, will activate the Saluki’s instinct to chase, and his speed has been clocked at 30 to 35 miles per hour. Unless he’s protected by a strong human on the other end of the leash or a securely fenced yard, he’s likely to meet his end beneath the wheels of a car.

You might think that Salukis living in the country would have fewer issues, but they’ve been known to chase down and tangle with or kill goats, otters, foxes, raccoons, snakes, squirrels, and deer. To keep a Saluki safe and well exercised, provide him with to lateral feet of fenced area where he can run full out.

The History, Antiquity and Chronology of Hinduism

Historical linguistics is the study of language change. History and development[ change change source ] Modern historical linguistics dates from the late 18th century. It grew out of the earlier discipline of philology , the study of ancient texts and documents dating back to antiquity. At first, historical linguistics was comparative linguistics. The focus was on the well-known Indo-European languages , many of which had long written histories.

Ink History; The Antiquity And First Centuries Ad – posted in Inky Thoughts: Ink History Antiquity The History of ink dates back to the ancient times of Antiquity. Unfortunately it is not possible to date the exact time when the first Inks where use. One could safely say that the first use of ink was a giant step (in the advance of culture.

The History, Antiquity and Chronology of Hinduism by Jayaram V The word Hinduism does not render full justice to the complexity of an ancient living religion that once dominated half of the world. Perhaps many Hindus may not even know what it actually means and what truly constitutes Hinduism. Hidden within its depths are very diverse traditions and religious practices that are often contradictory and unrelated.

What truly holds them together is the fact that they originated in a particular geographical area and hold certain common basic beliefs that are eternal, indisputable and validated by independent seekers of truth time and again. Concepts such as karma, maya, reincarnation, existence of a universal self and individual self, nature or prakriti, bondage of the soul, suffering as nature of earthly life, the role of a guru, and the possibility of salvation for the individual soul make Hinduism a complex religion, that caters to a wide range of people with different spiritual needs.

Some scholars contend that belief in the Vedas is a precondition to be recognized as a Hindu. However this is a debatable issue as some followers of Saivism and Tantrism believe in the Agamas instead of the Vedas and are still considered as Hindus. Vedic and Non Vedic origin of Hinduism It has been a long tradition in the academic circles to place Vedic religion at the center of Hinduism, considering it to be its main source and begin the discussion of the origin of Hinduism with the vedic Aryans.

It is based on the assumption that the history of Hinduism began with the vedic Aryans who came to India in hordes, occupied large tracts of the Indian subcontinent and introduced an advanced religion to the native people of India.

History of martial arts

Preface The Vedic culture has been pervading the Indian subcontinent for a few thousand years back from today. The antiquity and continuity of this culture has been faithfully recorded in the oldest and grandest annals of mankind: Evidence has come forth entirely contradicting the present held “aryan invasion” of India. Archaeological excavations and other findings confirm the inception of the Indus Valley civilization as Vedic.

The origins of ancient states is an important archaeological research topic that illuminates the precursors of modern nations. Public buildings, as is the case today, created urban settings in which political, administrative and religious functions were undertaken.

It used animal fat as fuel and was used to provide light in cave dwellings years BC. The oil lamp is one of the oldest inventions of mankind, evidence dating between 15, to 12, years before Christ. At this time civilization, as we identify it, was unknown and prehistoric man inhabited cave-like environments. One characteristic prehistoric lamp was found in the cave of Lasceau, located in the area of Dordonis in France.

Discovered in , this cave was inhabited between 15, and 10, BC. Some archaeologists believe that the first oil lamps appeared as early as 70, years before Christ. Most of these oil lamps were made of stone and burned animal fat. Oil lamps dating to around BC have been found in Egypt where they were used for centuries, not only for the illumination of the home, but also in religious ritual, which was an integral part of daily life at the time. Oil lamp from Egypt years BC In historical times one such ceremony, called Liknokaia the burning lamp , was held in honor of the goddess Naiff, according to the historian Herodotus.

During this celebration the ancient Egyptians lit thousands of oil lamps around the country and in their homes. One well-known Egyptian oil lamp was the luxurious lamp of Isis, which was used to illuminate the statues of the gods.

Largest known megalithic block from antiquity revealed at Baalbek

Paleolit i Mezolit Verkhnei Leny. Paleolit i Mezolit Verkhnei Leny: The excavations in Kebara Cave, Mt. Carmel, Current Anthropology Isolating the transition to cultural adaptations: The Palaeolithic settlement of Europe.

Animal medicine and surgery are undoubtedly very ancient activities dating back to at least the time when species were domesticated. However, the first written documents did not appear until Antiquity.

There is certainly no evidence of official contact between late Anglo-Saxon England and Byzantium in the tenth and eleventh centuries, but there are nonetheless oblique hints that people and envoys were on the move between the two opposite ends of Europe. Similarly, a fragment of the True Cross given to Aethelstan in the same collection may have had an eastern origin as well, since the Byzantines gave a similar relic to the Western Franks in The same pattern would continue into the reigns of Cnut and Edward the Confessor yet another so-so king , which tells you a little about how eastern imperial nomenclature was hardly unknown in late Anglo-Saxon England.

William of Malmesbury, a twelve-century historian, recorded that there was a Greek monk at Malmesbury named Constantine in the early eleventh century. More surprisingly, William also said that the monks believed that Constantine was once an archbishop, but did not know why he left his native land. This tale may well be legendary, but it does tell us something about what later generations thought about the possibility of foreigners in eleventh-century Malmesbury.

Sometime between and , we also know that a Greek monk named Andrew served in the New Minster at Winchester, since he was named in the local Book of Life, which recorded names that were to be commended to God during mass. This is a very unlikely suggestion, as Nikephoros of Herakleia was an equally obscure figure and there is no reason for us to think that he could have travelled all the way to England.

This is why we have to supplement this with other evidence. Luckily for us, scholars such as Michael Lapidge have done all the legwork already. What about the Byzantines then?

Surrounded by Nature’s Antiquity

They were the Brahaminism, the Buddhism and the Jainism Nirgranthas. Latest research and excavation at Mohenjodaro and Harappa has shown that the Jainism existed five thousand years ago, however the Jains believe it to be eternal. The traditions and the legendary accounts prove the existence of Jainism as eternal. Twenty-four Tirthankaras in each half cycle reveal Jainism again and again in every cyclic period of the universe.

The Jains divide the whole span of time into two equal cycles, namely, Utsarpini and Avasarpini. During Utsarpini, there is a gradual increase in moral and physical state of the universe, while during Avasarpini, the case is just the opposite, i.

Pottery and ceramics have been a staple of Gaza for thousands of years with local samples dating back to the Neolithic. During the Hellenistic era, the “Gaza Amphorae” became a renowned symbol of excellent olive oil, wine, or brie that was produced in the city and traded with cities around the Mediterranean coast.

Colosseum or Coliseum though in olden times Romans referred to it as Amphitheatrum Caesareum or hunting theatre , was built by the Flavian emperors Vespasian , Titus and Domitian between and 80 AD as a gift to the Roman citizens in the place where the previous Emperor Nero AD had his residence, the Domus Aurea. To see what was there befor Nero click here.

The city needed an amphitheatre, as the only one with a partially stone structure, which had been built by Statilius Taurus in 29 BC, was far too small. The emperor Caligula AD had started the works for a new amphitheatre, but Claudius AD stopped them when he came to power. Nero, too, refused to use the old Statilius’ building and preferred to have his own amphitheatre built in the Campus Martis. It was a beautiful one, according to the historians, but it was destroyed, probably in the famous fire of AD Nero’s death in 68 AD marked the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty; the Flavian family came to power.

The emperor Vespasian was acknowledged as emperor by the Senate in 69, and wanted to make a political gesture to reconcile the Roman citizens with the new dynasty. So he gave back to the Romans most of the land that Nero had occupied in the centre of the city to make his residence, and had the amphitheatre – a public facility – built in the place where once there was a huge artificial pond , in the park of Nero’s residence.

A History Of Dubrovnik Old Town

Located at an altitude of approximately 1, meters in the Beqaa valley, Baalbek is known to have been settled from at least 7, BC, with almost continual settlement of the Tell under the Temple of Jupiter, which was a temple since the pre-Hellenistic era. Layout of the temple complex at Baalbek. Wikipedia One of the most awe-inspiring features of Baalbek are the incredible megalithic foundations of the Temple of Jupiter.

The region is dotted with thousands of cairns or graves dating back to Megalithic period between and years. The prehistoric graves date back to even 50, years.

Though they may know it as carbon dating or carbon 14 dating, there is an understood notion that when anything old is found, like an ancient artifact, it can be radiocarbon dated to find out exactly how old it is. Yet, as simple and straightforward as this seems, the process of dating objects via radiocarbon is far from simple and straightforward. Here I will present what radiocarbon is, the dating methods, the assumptions that govern them, and the known discrepancies that plague the method.

With a thorough understanding of this dating method, it is my opinion that its ingenious fundamentals can be appreciated, yet greatly overshadowed by its limitations. Radiocarbon Every day cosmic rays bombard our atmosphere. These cosmic rays release free neutrons which zip around our nitrogen rich atmosphere at high velocities. As the Carbon 14 slowly descends into our lower atmosphere it bonds with oxygen becoming the very unpopular CO2 greenhouse gas Bowman, Though the vast majority of CO2 is comprised of the more common and stable isotope of carbon, carbon 12 C12 , a small fraction of CO2 one in million , contains C As is common fact, plants photosynthesize and consume CO2, fixing its carbon.

Since a small fraction of CO2 contains C14, some of carbon fixed within the plant is that of C When an organism dies, it obviously no longer eats, photosynthesizes, etc. There is therefore no way for additional C14 to enter the organism once dead. This leads to an important fact:

History of wrestling

According to a paper about the discovery in the journal Antiquity , the tomb had five chambers and included the remains of a woman around the age of A jade seal on her coffin indicates that here name was Wan Dinu. Four compartments below her burial chamber included chests that held lacquer objects, but one chamber contained four model looms, each about one-sixth normal size.

The History Blog reports that archaeologists also found 15 carved figurines of men and women, weavers and their assistants, each about 10 inches high set up in a type of diorama around the looms, winding thread and using tools.

The shepherdess milwaukee art museum, with a history dating back to , the milwaukee art museums collection includes nearly 25, works from antiquity to .

Sylvia and Keith saw it as the perfect place for the Monolithic Dome dream home they had been envisioning and planning for many years. The home consists of three, interconnected Monolithic Domes: Keith described it as “sort of looking like a giant Mickey Mouse hat. I think that makes it rather unique. Before the South Industries crew arrived, Keith began clearing and preparing the site. This long and arduous task included building a vertical, semi-circular, ten-foot high, block wall on which half of the central dome sits.

They all packed up and left in mid September. A master suite is the largest of the five bedrooms. The property also includes a garage and a workshop of square feet. As a ranch kid from Montana traveling through Wisconsin, I saw a giant water tank and immediately thought that with a rounded roof, it would make a neat home. They reminded him of his dream of a dome-shaped home. So he stopped at the school and met with Principal Dwayne Horning, who told him how to contact David South president of Monolithic then headquartered in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

After meeting David, seeing more Monolithic Domes and getting information, Keith and Sylvia began designing their dome home.

Cruising around the Greek Islands with Seafarercruises

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